Ash Wednesday marks the beginning of the Christian liturgical season known as Lent, a time of repentance and prayer leading up to Easter. Christians have observed Ash Wednesday at least as early as the 8th century. Originally, Lent began on the 6th Sunday before Easter, with six days of fasting each week. Additional days were eventually added to make forty days of fasting, pushing the start date from Sunday to the preceding Wednesday. A man reads the Bible after he his forehead has been mar
Atheism is the modern name for the willful denial of the existence of deities.Although the term "atheos" can be traced back to the 5th century BCE, it did not imply the willful disbelief in all divinities. This meaning, exemplified in the English word "atheism," did not apply until the 17th century. This belief functions chiefly as a response to the cross-cultural belief in an omnipresent, omnipotent, and omniscient supreme deity that is responsible for the creation of the world or universe.
Introduction 'Uthman ibn Affan'Uthmān ibn 'Affān (c. 574 - 656 CE) was the third caliph of Islam, who continued the military expansion of Islam and oversaw the compilation of the official version of the Quran. As a wealthy member of the powerful Umayyad clan, 'Uthman's conversion to Islam initially upset his fellow tribesmen. However, his wealth and power were important to the establishment of Islam, and Muhammad offered one of his daughters to 'Uthman as a wife to fortify the alliance. 'U
The Dakshineswar Kali Temple in Calcutta, India. The Dakshineswar Kali Temple is located along the Hooghly river, near the Kalighat Kali Temple in Calcutta. While both temples are dedicated to the goddess Kali, the Dakshineswar Kali Temple was particularly well-known for its association with the Hindu saint Ramakrishna (1836-1886), who spent the majority of his life devoted to the goddess Kali as a priest of this temple. It was at this temple that Ramakrishna was said to have received a
The Mahayana doctrine of Tathagata Garbha describes the notion that each sentient being has the virtue, wisdom, and inner capacity to become a buddha from the moment of its births. However, these pure elements are clouded by defilements that must be removed as one ventures along the Buddhist path. This doctrine may be dated to about the 3rd century CE. This teaching was not popular enough in India to be championed by any particular Buddhist school, but it became extremel
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