'Aisha bint Abu Bakr'Ā'ishah bint Abu Bakr (612-678 CE) is often considered Muhammad's favorite wife.In accordance with accepted cultural practice among Arab tribes, Muhammad practiced polygamy after the death of his first wife, Khadijah . She was the daughter of Abu Bakr, a close friend and important supporter of the Prophet, and her marriage to Muhammad at a young age served to fortify the alliance between the two men. Although ‘Aisha was accused of adultery during her marriage to Mu
For Sunni Muslims, 'Ashura is simply a day of optional fasting. For Shi'a Muslims, however, the date is extremely significant as it marks the anniversary of the martyrdom of Husayn ibn Ali, Muhammad’s grandson and a key figure in the establishment of Shi'ism.
The 'Eid al-Adha festival is considered the most sacred holiday in Islam. It celebrates the end of hajj, a pilgrimage to Mecca that every Muslim is expected to make once in his or her lifetime. It also commemorates Abraham’s willingness to sacrifice his son, and emphasizes the submission of one’s will to Allah.
'Eid al-Fitr is a festival that marks the end of Ramadan, the Islamic holy month of fasting. It is a festival of thanksgiving for the blessings that the Muslims enjoy during Ramadan. It is a celebration of great cheer and festivity. Muslims in Indonesia pray during 'Eid al-Fitr Date of observance: 1 Shawwal (August 19, 2012) Modern practices: A special congregational prayer known as salat al-jumah is held in the morning. Muslims hold large family meals throughout the day and exchange
Introduction 'Ubayd Allah al-Mahdi (d. 934 CE) is the founder of the Fatimid dynasty, an important Shi'i dynasty in North Africa from 909 to 1171 CE. A member of the Ismaili sect of Shi'ism, Ubayd Allah opposed the Sunni rule of the Abbasid dynasty and proclaimed himself imam and, therefore, the proper caliph of all of Islam. His claims did not go unnoticed by the Sunni governors, however, and he was imprisoned in North Africa near 902 CE. When the Ismaili movement had gained sufficient stren
'Umar ibn al-Khattab'Umar ibn al-Khaṭṭāb (c. 586-644 CE) was an early convert to Islam from its major opposing tribe in Mecca (Quraysh), an important adviser to Muhammad and Abu Bakr, and Islam's second caliph. Leaving his own tribe in Mecca, 'Umar, along with other early Muslims, accompanied Muhammad in his migration, or hijra, to Medina and participated in the formation of a unified Islamic community there. 'Umar had particularly close ties to Muhammad as his daughter Hafsa was married to
Introduction 'Uthman ibn Affan'Uthmān ibn 'Affān (c. 574 - 656 CE) was the third caliph of Islam, who continued the military expansion of Islam and oversaw the compilation of the official version of the Quran. As a wealthy member of the powerful Umayyad clan, 'Uthman's conversion to Islam initially upset his fellow tribesmen. However, his wealth and power were important to the establishment of Islam, and Muhammad offered one of his daughters to 'Uthman as a wife to fortify the alliance. 'U
Note : The views expressed on the page do necessarily not reflect the views or opinions of Faithology. The following information constitutes a collection of the most widely held opinions, various hypotheses, and scientific findings surrounding the 2012 phenomenon. It is the goal of Faithology to provide accurate and un-biased information regarding the 2012 phenomenon and all topics published on this site in order that those who are seeking answers have the tools to do so. Theories regarding
'Abd al-Qadir al-Jilani (1077 – 1166 CE) is the recognized founder of the Qadiriyya Sufi order,The order is one of the oldest Sufi orders. Sufism is not a distinct sect within Islam; rather it is an attitude toward the practice of Islam. In other words, Sufis may be either Sunni or Shi'i, and they may also ascribe to any school of religious law. Often Sufism is described as Islamic mysticism. Although Sufism is not its own distinct sect, it does contain separate orders within it. The Qadiriy
Abraham, the son of Terah, is called "the Father of the Faithful," as he is considered a main patriarch of Christianity, Judaism and Islam. He was born with the name Abram, The etymology of this name is uncertain, but some scholars suggest that Abram may be Hebrew, meaning, "Father [God] is exalted." but it was later changed by God to Abraham. The Hebrew Bible suggests Abraham may be Hebrew, meaning, "Father of many nations." In Islam he is known as Ibrahm. Among those who accept the Hebr
Abu al-Hasan 'Ali al-Ash'ari (c. 873 – c. 935 CE) was a Muslim theologian whose opposition to the Mu'tazilah movementThe Mu'tazilah movement began in the 8th century and flourished through the 10th century. Its emphasis on rationalism challenged orthodoxy in such matters as the eternal existence of the Qur'an and the role of free will in human behavior. during the 10th century CE helped to define Sunnism and reestablish Islamic orthodoxy. A map of the Middle East shows Basra,Iraq, the b
Abu BakrAbū Bakr (c. 573-634 CE) was a close friend, supporter, and adviser of Muhammad. He succeeded the Prophet as leader of the Islamic community after Muhammad's death in 632 CE. As one of Islam's first converts, Abu Bakr held a place of special significance within the Islamic community and was crucial to its establishment. It was through his influence that many early Muslims were converted. During the last years of Muhammad's life, Abu Bakr took on increasingly significant roles, inclu
Adam and Eve were the first humans placed on Earth by God, according to Christian tradition. Cast out of paradise after they disobeyed God's commandment not to eat from the Tree of Life,Bible: Genesis 3. the Bible states that the Fall of Man, as this event is often called, affected all of humanity.Bible: Romans 5:12 There are two accounts of creation appearing in the first two chapters of Genesis. Some scholars suggest that this is a chiasmus: a Jewish literary device used to assist in l
Shortly after outlining the steps of spiritual progress for Scientology in 1965, Scientology founder L. Ron Hubbard resigned from his official administrative position with the Church of Scientology and spent the next period of his life developing higher orders of training. These efforts led to the formation of a new sub-organization within Scientology known as the Sea Organization, or, more commonly, the Sea Org. The organization literally began on the sea, housed on three different ships: the
Introduction Advent is the time of preparation for celebrating the birth of Jesus Christ. Its precise origin is unknown, but an "advent" season was mentioned in the records of the Council of Tours (567 CE); mentions of similar, unnamed celebrations are found in older records. In some liturgies associated with Advent, both the past and future comings of Jesus Christ are referenced. Advent is celebrated as a time of penance and repentance for Christians as well as a time for the joyful anticipat