Lewis, Bonnie, et. al. "Jerusalem, Israel." Faithology.com. Faithology, 14 March 2013. Web. 10 December 2013.
Lewis, B., et. al. (2013, Mar 14). Jerusalem, Israel. Faithology.
Lewis, Bonnie, et. al. "Jerusalem, Israel" Faithology, LLC. Last modified March 14, 2013.
Faithology, LLC, 2012. (Accessed Dec 10, 2013).. Jerusalem, Israel.
- Biblical quotations taken from The Holy Bible, New Revised Standard Version.
- "Crusades," Encyclopædia Britannica. Encyclopædia Britannica Online. Encyclopædia Britannica, 2011. Web. 28 Sep. 2011. http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/144695/Crusades.
- "Jerusalem," Mercer Dictionary of the Bible, edited by Watson E. Mills, et al. Macon: Mercer University Press, 1991. Print.
- "Jerusalem," Nelson's New Illustrated Bible Dictionary, 2nd edition, edited by Ronald F. Youngblood, F. F. Bruce and R. K. Harrison. Nashville: Thomas Nelson, 1995. Print.
- "Jerusalem Tourism: Christian Sites," The Jerusalem Website. Internet Department, Jerusalem Municipality (n.d.) Web. 14 July 2011. http://www.jerusalem.muni.il/jer_main/defaultnew.asp?lng=2.
- "Jordan River," Encyclopædia Britannica. Encyclopædia Britannica Online. Encyclopædia Britannica, 2011. Web. 14 Jul. 2011. http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/306217/Jordan-River.
- AFP. "Israel experiencing tourist boom." Herald Sun. 28 Dec. 2011 http://www.heraldsun.com.au/ipad/israel-experiencing-tourist-boom/story-fn6bn4mv-1225976925534.
- Last Updated: March 14, 2013
- Originally Published: July 22, 2012
Jesus ’s ministry occurred. The events of Jesus’s ministry are chronicled in four books of the Bible, known as the Gospels. Many of the locations of many biblical events that were said to have taken place about 2000 years ago can still be visited today. In fact, tourism is one of Jerusalem's major industries. In 2010, there was an estimated 3.45 million tourists who visited Israel, which brought in fifteen billion shekels (approximately $4.09 billion in U.S. dollars.) Many tourists visit the city each year to and experience firsthand the places where the says that Jesus walked, gave sermons, and performed miracles. The city of Jerusalem has changed in structure and boundaries since the 1st century CE, but many believe that the landmarks of today are actually the places mentioned in the Bible. Jerusalem is also a sacred city to Jews and Muslims.is the capital city of . Christians consider it a holy place, as it is believed to be where most of
The city of Jerusalem is located in the southeast area of Israel along the West Bank, about 36 miles east of the Mediterranean. Jerusalem has a large hill on the east, and three valleys surround the three other sides of the city: the Kidron Valley, Hinnom Valley, and the Tyropeoeon or Central Valley. To some, Jerusalem's geography does not seem appealing, as it is surrounded by unfertile land, does not have an adequate supply of water in the city and is enclosed by three major valleys. However, its geography is most likely the reason this city was chosen for habitation. The valleys provided a natural defense from enemies, and the Old Testament book of Hezekiah speaks of a natural spring that flowed from the Kidron Valley. Inhabitants of Jerusalem at the time redirected the course of the water so that it flowed into the city. This provided water for the inhabitants of Jerusalem, but not for any enemies living outside of the city.
According to the Bible, many of the important events of Jesus’ ministry took place in Jerusalem, including:
- Jesus teaching in the courts
- Jesus cleansing the Temple
- Jesus discussing eternal life with Nicodemus
- Jesus healing at the pool of Bethesda
- Jewish leaders attempting to stone Jesus; Jesus’s questioning by Jewish authorities; Jesus declaring his
- Jesus’s triumphal entry the week prior to his
- Jesus sharing the Last Supper
- Jesus's trial, , crucifixion, and
The Biblical History of Jerusalem
Jerusalem is first mentioned in Egyptian texts that date to the 19th century BCE. It has been the site of numerous power seizures and conflicts throughout the ages. Jerusalem did not become a settlement of the King David, as recorded in 2 Samuel 5, which discusses the capture of Jerusalem by the Hebrew army under the reign of Joab. 1 Chronicles 11:4-9 describes this capture as a political and religious quest to make Jerusalem the political and religious capital of the world. After this capture, Jerusalem became known as the City of David, a title that is still referenced by Christians today. Under David's rule, the Twelve Tribes of Israel came together as a unified nation. The mention and circumstance of Jerusalem, as laid out in the Bible, made Jerusalem sacred to Judaism long before Christianity existed as an organized religion.until the time of
Under the reign of King Solomon, the Temple that David hoped to build was constructed on Mt. Moriah.According to biblical accounts, Solomon also extended the border of the city, almost doubling it in size. A Temple, which is an ornate palace of , and many other buildings marked Solomon's reign over the city. In addition, Solomon grew the agricultural side of Jerusalem by planting vineyards, orchards, and many gardens while providing a complex watering system for the new vegetation. This period of time, christened "Jerusalem's Golden Age" by some, ended with the death of Solomon in 931 BCE.
After the death of Solomon, the nation of Israel divided. Ten tribes allied as the "Northern Kingdom"—also called Israel, Ephraim or Samaria—and established their capital at Samaria in Ephraimite territory. The other two tribes allied as the "Southern Kingdom," or Judah, and kept Jerusalem as their capital. Judah retained its independence until 586 BCE, when Nebuchadnezzar, King of Babylon, invaded and captured the city. During this invasion, Jerusalem's temple was destroyed and the walls around the city were torn down. The Jewish people lamented the destruction of their beloved city and Temple in words of grief heard throughout the Lamentations and other Old Testament writings. The Jews were exiled to Babylon, where they remained for generations, unable to practice their own religion.
The Jewish people remained captive until Cyrus, King of Persia, defeated the Babylonians.He permitted the Israelites to return to Jerusalem, rebuild the city, and return to their original religious practices. After some twenty years and under the leadership of Zerubbabel, the Temple was fully rebuilt (called "the Second Temple" or "Temple of Zerubbabel"), although it was not as ornate as the first Temple. The city continued rebuilding under the leadership of Nehemiah as a second group of Jews returned to Jerusalem and restored more walls around the city. During this time, the Jewish nation experienced a period of peace and prosperity.
After the death of Alexander, many Jews in Jerusalem felt threatened by Hellenistic (Greek, "Greek-based") culture, fearing that the new customs would erase their way of life. The Jews resisted the changes in culture, so Antiochus IV Epiphanesattacked Jerusalem and destroyed the Second Temple in retribution. Judas Maccabeus led the Jewish people in a revolt (called the Maccabean Revolt) against Antiochus and the Greek culture, reclaimed the city and began rebuilding. The Maccabean Revolt established the independent nation of Judea with Jerusalem as its capital. The inhabitants enjoyed this freedom until Judea was conquered by the Roman Empire and Jerusalem became a province under Roman rule.
Jerusalem's status as a Roman province, known as Judaea, continued through the New Testament period. Under a Roman-appointed king, Herod the Great, the first Temple that was destroyed in 587 BCE was rebuilt around 19 CE; this was the second Temple that was known to Jesus Christ. After Herod's death,became governor. The Temple was an ongoing construction project, not fully completed until 67 CE, decades after the ministry of Jesus. Nevertheless, Jerusalem became the center place of the new community, and was mentioned frequently in the Acts of the , as followers of Jesus traveled to and from the city, spreading Christianity.
Post-Biblical History of Jerusalem
The city of Jerusalem was destroyed in 70 CE, and the Temple was eliminated. Now, the primary cultural and political influences on the city were Roman. In the 8th century, the land and city came under the control of the Muslim Caliphate. The Crusades of the early Middle Ages briefly established the city as the capital of a Christian nation, but this distinction was short-lived. The Islamic Caliphate returned, succeeded by the Empire.
Following World War I, the Ottoman Empire was dismembered. In 1919, a British territory called Palestine was established by the League of Nations, with Jerusalem as its capital. For three decades, Jewish people whose ancestors who had once inhabited the city and had then been banned from it came to Jerusalem to inhabit the city. A "new city" was built west of the historic city, and after World War II, the new city was allocated to the Jews and the old city to the Arabs in a United Nations partition plan to establish a Jewish homeland called "Israel." The Arab-Israeli War of 1948-1949 failed to stop the new nation's creation, and Israel captured the old city during the 1967 Six Day War. Jerusalem has remained under Israeli rule to the present.
Many places in Jerusalem are of interest to tourists today. In addition to significant sites from the Biblical accounts of the ministry of Jesus, many tourists visit the Western Wall (77% of all tourists in 2010), the Temple Mount (located on the summit of Mount Moriah), Old Jerusalem, and the City of David Visitors Center, or take part in tours that travel the same roads as Jesus allegedly traveled during his ministry. Popular places of interest include the Christian Quarter, the Christ Church,John the Baptist, the Church of Ascension, Church of the Holy Sepulcher (61% of all tourists in 2010), the Garden of , the Church of All Nations, the Last Supper Room and the Tomb of .the Church of